The parish comprises 7080 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £5815 per annum: the land is in general good, though in some parts the soil is light and shallow, the substratum being generally schistus based on argillaceous grit; the system of agriculture has been lately much improved. There are about 300 acres of woodland in gentlemen's demesnes, and a tract of turbary of about 100 acres. Indications of copper exist, but no attempt has been made to work it. The alternation of greenstone and freestone is singularly curious, and the sudden transitions of the rocks also render the parish interesting to the geologist. The scenery is beautifully picturesque; the vale in which the town is situated is covered with hanging woods extending on the west to Bandon, and on the east to Shippool, and is on both sides embellished with pleasing villas and thriving plantations, among which the tower of the church forms a picturesque feature. The principal seats are Downdaniel, the residence of the Rev. R. L. Conner, a modern mansion near the site of the castle of that name, partly built with the materials of the ancient structure, and commanding a fine view of the vale; Fir Grove, of R. Quin, Esq.; Shippool House, of Capt. Herrick, R.N.; Woodview, of F. Seely, Esq.; Sunning Hill, of Mrs. Quinn; Belmont, of Major Meade; Cor Castle, of Chambre Corker, Esq.; Frankfort, of Major Westcott; the residence of the Rev. T. Meade; and Rock Castle, of E. Becher, Esq., on the lawn of which and on the margin of the river were the ruins of Cariganass castle, on removing which, by the uncle of the present proprietor, several cannon balls were found. The river above the town abounds with fish, and is much frequented by anglers. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of the representatives of the late Jas. Kearney, of Garrettstown, Esq.; the tithes amount to £632. 6. 11.; the tithes of the ploughland of Skevanahish, amounting to £42. 10., are appropriated to the see, and payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There is no glebe-house, and the glebe comprises only about half an acre. The church, situated in a thick plantation near the river, is a very neat edifice with a square tower. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parishes of Brinny, Knockavilly, and Leighmoney; the chapel was built at an expense of £1500, in 1829, on a site of two acres presented by E. Hale Adderley, Esq. There is also a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. About 100 children are taught in two public schools, of which the parochial school is supported by a grant of £30 per annum, from the trustees of Erasmus Smith's fund, and a donation from the rector, who provides a house rent-free; and there are four private schools, in which are about 250 children. The late T. H. Adderley, Esq., bequeathed £5 per annum to the poor; Dr. Synge, Bishop of Cork, who died in 1678, made a bequest to the parish, of which nothing is at present known. A dispensary is supported in the usual manner. On the lands of Barnas is an extensive circular fortress, surrounded by a double rampart and fosse, in which Barry Oge encamped when driven from Downdaniel Castle; and near it is a powerful chalybeate spring, containing a large portion of carbonic acid gas.